Haplogroup Origins

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Haplogroups I1 M253

For several years the prevailing theory was that during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) the predecessors of the I1 group sought refuge in the Balkans. For a time, the Ukraine was considered as an alternative. Yet, The Genographic Project claims that the founder of the I1 branch lived on the Iberian Peninsula during the LGM. Some have given southern France and the Italian peninsula as possible sites as well.[5] Although the locations vary, proponents of the refuge theories do seem to agree on one issue: that the I1 subclade is from 15,000 to 20,000 years old.
However, professor Ken Nordtvedt of Montana State University believes that I1 is a more recent group, probably emerging after the LGM. Other researchers including Peter A. Underhill of the Human Population Genetics Laboratory at Stanford University have since confirmed this hypothesis in independent research.
The study of I1, which some had argued was largely ignored by the genetic testing industry in favor of "mega-haplogroups" like R, is in flux. Revisions and updates to previous thinking, primarily published in academic journals, is constant, yet slow, showing an evolution in thought and scientific evidence.
The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of I1 lived from 4,000 to 6,000 years ago somewhere in the far northern part of Europe, perhaps Denmark, according to Nordtvedt. His descendants are primarily found among the Germanic populations of northern Europe and the bordering Uralic and Celtic populations, although even in traditionally German demographics I1 is overshadowed by the more prevalent Haplogroup R.
When SNPs are unknown or untested and when short tandem repeat (STR) results show eight allele repeats at DNA Y chromosome Segment (DYS) 455, haplogroup I1 can be predicted correctly with a very high rate of accuracy, 99.3 to 99.8 percent, according to Whit Athey and Vince Vizachero. This is almost exclusive to and ubiquitous in the I1 haplogroup, with very few having seven, nine, or another number. Furthermore, DYS 462 divides I1 geographically. Nordtvedt considers 12 allele repeats to be more likely Anglo-Saxon and on the southern fringes of the I1 map, while 13 signifies more northerly, Nordic origins. Nordtvedt has repeatedly argued that, at least for I1, SNP testing is generally not as beneficial as expanded STR results.
Haplogroup I1 was formally known as I1a

Haplogroups I2b1 (M223, P219/S24, P220/S119, P221/S120, P222/U250/S118, P223/S117)

The distribution of Haplogroup I2b1 is closely correlated to that of Haplogroup I1 except in Fennoscandia, which suggests that it was probably harbored by at least one of the Paleolithic refuge populations that also harbored Haplogroup I1; the lack of correlation between the distributions of I1 and I2b1 in Fennoscandia may be a result of Haplogroup I2b1's being more strongly affected in the earliest settlement of this region by founder effects and genetic drift due to its rarity, as Haplogroup I2b1 comprises less than 10% of the total Y-chromosome diversity of all populations outside of Lower Saxony. The distributions of Haplogroup I1 and Haplogroup I2b1 seem to correlate fairly well with the extent of historical influence of Germanic peoples. Haplogroup I2b1 has been found in over 4% of the population only in Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, England (not including Wales or Cornwall), Scotland, and the southern tips of Sweden and Norway in Northwest Europe; the provinces of Normandy, Maine, Anjou, and Perche in northwestern France; the province of Provence in southeastern France; the regions of Tuscany, Umbria, and Latium in Italy; and Moldavia and the area around Russia's Ryazan Oblast and Republic of Mordovia in Eastern Europe. One subclade of Haplogroup I2b1, namely I2b1a (M284), has been found almost exclusively among the population of Great Britain, suggesting that the clade may have a very long history in that island. Of historical note, both haplogroups I1 and I2b appear at a low frequency in the historical regions of Bithynia and Galatia in Turkey, possibly descendants of the ancient Gauls of Thrace, several tribes of which are recorded to have immigrated to those parts of Anatolia at the invitation of Nicomedes I of Bithynia. Haplogroup I2b1 also occurs among approximately 1% of the Sardinians. The subclade divergence for M223 occurred 14.6±3.8 kya (Rootsi 2004). Haplogroup I2b1 can be further subdivided in 5 subgroups. Haplogroup I2b1* with no further known polymorphisms, Haplogroup I2b1a with M284 polymorphism with an undergroup Haplogroup I2b1a1 with the L126/S165, L137/S166 polymorphisms, Haplogroup I2b1b with M379 polymorphism, Haplogroup I2b1c with P78 polymorphism, and Haplogroup I2b1d with P95 polymorphism. The age of YSTR variation for the M223 subclade is 13.2±2.7 kya (Rootsi 2004) and 12.3±3.1 kya (Underhill 2007).
I2b1 was formerly I1b2a - old I1c

Haplogroup G

Haplogroup G (M201) is a branch of Haplogroup F (M89). Haplogroup G has an overall low frequency in most populations but is widely distributed within many ethnic groups of the Old World in Europe, Western Asia, northern Africa, Central Asia, the Middle East, India and Southeast Asia (including parts of China and the Malay Archipelago).

Haplogroup R1a

Haplogroup R1a is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black and Caspian Seas. This lineage is believed to have originated in a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (approximately 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is currently found in central and western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Eastern Europe.

Haplogroup R1b

Haplogroup R1bis the most common haplogroup in European populations. It is believed to have expanded throughout Europe as humans re-colonized after the last glacial maximum 10-12 thousand years ago. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype (HG1).

Note: The systematic subclade names have changed several times in recent years, and they are likely to change again, as new markers are discovered which clarify the sequential branching of the tree.

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